You show WW1 deaths in New Mexico-- [Add] Casiano Trujillo. He entered the USArmy
5/18/1917 and was honorably discharged 2/24/1919 because of 'mustard gas' poisoning.
He died on 9/25/1919 from exposure [to] mustard gas in the trenches of France. He
is buried in Tucumcari, N.M. He more than qualifies to be named.
A bit of trivia: Jose Fraylen Trujillo [on the list] was Casianos' brother.
Delfido Gonzalez was Casiano's first cousin.
The First Thanksgiving
Comment and Reply:
From: Kevin Clancy, firstname.lastname@example.org>
www.cdsinc.com, cc John Wylie.
Sent: Wednesday, November 26, 2008 7:17 AM
Response from NMGS web site, by: Patricia
Esterly. Consultants Armando Sandoval and Pauline Chavez Bent. December 04, 2008,
to Kevin Clancy, cc John Wylie.
A French Connection
By Kenneth C. Davis.
"Looks like that article is out of date. See recent article in todays NYT
below: Passages are from the book, “America’s Hidden
History: Untold Tales of the First Pilgrims, Fighting Women and Forgotten Founders
Who Shaped a Nation.”
"To commemorate the arrival of the first pilgrims to America’s shores,
a June date would be far more appropriate, accompanied perhaps by coq au vin and
a nice Bordeaux. After all, the first European arrivals seeking religious freedom
in the “New World” were French. And they beat their English counterparts
by 50 years. That French settlers bested the Mayflower Pilgrims may surprise Americans
raised on our foundational myth, but the record is clear.
"Long before the Pilgrims sailed in 1620, another group of dissident Christians
sought a haven in which to worship freely. These French Calvinists, or Huguenots,
hoped to escape the sectarian fighting between Catholics and Protestants that had
bloodied France since 1560.
"Landing in balmy Florida in June of 1564, at what a French explorer had earlier
named the River of May (now the St. Johns River near Jacksonville), the French émigrés
promptly held a service of“thanksgiving.” Carrying the seeds of a new
colony, they also brought cannons to fortify the small, wooden enclosure they named
Fort Caroline, in honor of their king, Charles IX.
" . . . the Spanish, who had other visions for the New World. In 1565, King
Philip II of Spain issued orders to “hang and burn the Lutherans” (then
a Spanish catchall term for Protestants) and dispatched Adm. Pedro Menéndez
to wipe out these French heretics who had taken up residence on land claimed by
the Spanish — and who also had an annoying habit of attacking Spanish treasure
ships as they sailed by.
"Leading this holy war with a crusader’s fervor, . . . Mendendez engineered
a murderous assault on Fort Caroline, in which most of the French settlers were
massacred. marked by an
With this, America’s first pilgrims disappeared from the pages of history.
Casualties of Europe’s murderous religious wars, they fell victim to Anglophile
historians who erased their existence as readily as they demoted the Spanish settlement
of St. Augustine to second-class status behind the later English colonies in Jamestown
But the truth cannot be so easily buried. Although overlooked, a brutal first chapter
had been written in the most untidy history of a “Christian nation.”
And the sectarian violence and hatred that ended with the deaths of a few hundred
Huguenots in 1565 would be replayed often in early America, the supposed haven for
religious dissent, which in fact tolerated next to none.
Starting with those massacred French pilgrims, the saga of the nation’s birth
and growth is often a bloodstained one, filled with religious animosities. In Boston,
for instance, the Puritan fathers banned Catholic priests and executed several Quakers
between 1659 and 1661. Cotton Mather, the famed Puritan cleric, led the war cries
against New England’s Abenaki “savages” who had learned their
prayers from the French Jesuits. The colony of Georgia was established in 1732 as
a buffer between the Protestant English colonies and the Spanish missions of Florida;
its original charter banned Catholics. The bitter rivalry between Catholic France
and Protestant England carried on for most of a century, giving rise to anti-Catholic
laws, while a mistrust of Canada’ French Catholics helped fire many patriots’
passion for independence. As late as 1844, Philadelphia’s anti-Catholic “Bible
Riots” took the lives of more than a dozen people.
The list goes on. Our history is littered with bleak tableaus that show what happens
when righteous certitude is mixed with fearful ignorance. Which is why this Thanksgiving,
as we express gratitude for America’s bounty and promise, we would do well
to reflect on all our histories, including a forgotten French one that began on
Florida’s shores so many years ago.
Director, SI's & Programs, Commercial Data Systems, Washington, DC
Dear Mr. Clancy:
Hello, Mr. Clancy. Thank you for your letter. I think that article has generated
more responses than any other on our web site. In general, some provincial pride
has slipped in, as other explorers or settlers are named as having come to the New
World earlier than anyone else.
1) Earlier than 1598? There's no doubt of that possibility. But,
more significant is the fact that the people in this large group came for the specific
purpose of settling in the New World, managed to hang on through centuries of hardships,
and fulfilled their purpose. The "settlement," in fact, is still strong and growing.
As far as I know, that achievement may stand alone among the competitors.
2) Documentation: The 1598 meal that accompanied the Oñate
expedition’s act of Thanksgiving was
recordedby Gaspar Perez de Villagrá, a scribe and Spanish poet, who traveled
with the group. His account, "Canto XIV" is published in Historia de la
Nueva Mexico, 1610: A Critical and Annotated Spanish/English edition. It was
translated by Joseph Sanchez, Ph.D, Miguel Encinias, and Alfred Rodriguez. As mentioned
in the title, the book contains versions in both languages. It is listed in the
section of our web site, available from
Although the coq au vin and Bordeaux sound wonderful,
we will maintain that our known history of don Juan de Oñate and the settlers
who arrived in 1598 had the earliest documented Thanksgiving meal as well
as establishing the longest continuously occupied settlement on this continent.
We appreciate your contribution to this discussion, and will add this letter to
the "Feedback" section of our web site to encourage further information.
Patricia Black Esterly
NMGS web editor
The article by Pauline Chavez Bent on The First Thanksgiving was excellent!
I was familiar with the data, but she puts it together very well. It should be required
reading for every school child in New Mexico, the Southwest, and the entire country.
The First Thanksgiving
Dr. Jerry R. Aschermann, Missouri Western State College, by email 12 October 2003.
I've never seen the above page before . . . very good. I live in Missouri
[a transplant from Pueblo, Colorado]. The folks in this neighborhood only know of
the gringo holiday that happened many years after that in New Mexico. The local
people seem to think that American history started at "the rock."
Where was the first Thanksgiving held in North America? If you guessed Plymouth,
Massachusetts, guess again. On April 30, 1598, Spanish nobleman Don Juan
de Oñate and a group of settlers traveling northward from Zacatecas, Nueva España
(now Mexico), reached the banks of El Rio Bravo (Rio Grande). The first recorded
act of thanksgiving by colonizing Europeans on this continent occurred on that April
day in 1598 in Nuevo Mexico, about 25 miles south of what is now El Paso, Texas.
. . . Read the entire article by Richard Eastman at
"I was amazed to find our grandfathers name on the Tres Piedras cemetery list,
being he died in 1922 or so. We're sure it`s his name because [we knew] he was
shot over a conflict with a neighbor homesteader. You have listed CASTLE ? BEF 26
shot over a conflict with another homesteader. His first name was Leonard and middle
ROSCOE CASTLE. Weve established his birthdate yr of 1865, maried to bertha clark.
Died in 1921. Hope that helps and please update would you please.
"Alan Castle----grandson. Marvin Castle----- son--- deceased 817-595-8841 if
you would like to call me p o box 14853, haltom city, tx 76117 My father was born
the yr of the shooting, my guess he would have to been born in NM Marvin Roscoe
[Ed. note: This new information has been added to the cemetery article at
Tres Piedras Cemetery.]
Dawn Manyfeathers, CEO
Lenapehauken Education and Research Center email 12/20/2002
[Ed. note: Due to the challenge below, the link to the Accohannock
History site has been removed from our links page.]
Regarding the Accohannock History site at http://skipjack.net/le_shore/accohannock/.
The information contained in the history portrayed is totally fake. If you need
proof of the information being a fake, I will e-mail you the report that Dr.Helen
Rountree sent me on this site and her credentials. We are trying to remove that
site from the Internet all together. Thank you for your help and understanding in
Dawn Manyfeathers, CEO Lenapehauken Education and Re email@example.com Center
Date:Wed, 20 Nov 2002
Subject: Helen Rountree's response to Accohannock history
. . . I have serious problems with the history as it is currently posted
on that tribe's website -- as a scholar, not as a person, for I know and like several
of the people calling themselves Accohannock. I do not mean merely a problem with
the "oral tradition" about "hiding in plain sight"; I discussed my skepticism about
the possibility of that strategy actually working with Mary Hope Billings and her
brother when I saw them on November 2nd. As long as they call it an "oral tradition,"
I can tolerate it.
But there are some factual errors in the history, including a date that
is just plain wrong. Whoever "researched" that history for the tribe apparently
could not take in what either the original eye-witness records or the scholarly
books said. And while the tribe posts such an error-ridden history, I fear that
its own reputation will be negatively affected. I'll be specific:
PARAGRAPH 1: There is no documentary evidence that "Occohannock" territory
extended as far north and west as the Annamessex River in pre-Contact or Contact
times. Instead, the limited documents indicate that the "Annamessex Indians" --
which is how the residents are called -- were allied with the Pocomokes.
PARAGRAPH 2: There was no "Accomac Confederation" -- or any "Confederation"
on the Eastern Shore. Instead the records show chiefs, who were medium-powerful
hereditary rulers. The 17th century English always called them "kings" or "queens"
or "emperor/empresses." The Accohannock district-chiefdoms (about a dozen of them)
were ruled over by a paramount chief who in the 1620s was the younger brother of
the paramount chief of Accomac. The elder brother was called "emperor" by the English;
after his death, when the Accomacs went their separate way, the "emperor [later,
"empress"] of the Eastern Shore" was the paramount chief of the Occohannock districts.
PARAGRAPH 3: The treaty of 1646 has never had a title, and it did not
involve the Eastern Shore at all. The Treaty of Middle Plantation was made in 1677,
and no Eastern Shore rulers signed it. However, its relatively enlightened (for
the time) provisions were customarily extended to the Eastern Shore Indians in Virginia.
Neither treaty detribalized anyone. Neither treaty forced English culture on Indian
people, in the sense that boarding schools out West tried to do it to Plains Indian
children in the 19th century. Both treaties provided for Indian children to join
English families voluntarily, but the surviving Virginia records indicate that few
children did so. Meanwhile, the 1677 treaty stated specifically that Virginia Indian
people were guaranteed protection of their persons and property in the same way
(by suing in court) that English people were. That is nothing like an attempt to
"prohibit the culture." Grass-roots English racism and loss of the landbase eventually
caused Indian people to adopt English agriculture to survive -- a process that occurred
in the late 17th century for the Accomacs (by then called Gingaskins) and mainly
in the 18th century for the Accohannocks (by then living in Maryland, with either
the Pocomokes or the Nanticokes).
PARAGRAPH 4: The English settlers took most of the land on both shores.
The major thing that kept the peace on the Eastern one was the native people's willingness
to sell out fast -- and that is documented best of all for the Accohannocks in the
1640s-60s. The revealing of the poisoning plot occurred in 1621, and the revelator
was the Accomac paramount chief, not the Accohannock one. The one and only document
about that incident says nothing about any intention to poison wells; only people.
A subsequent document speaks about Opechancanough's resentment toward Accomacs;
nothing appears in any records during those years about Accohannocks.
PARAGRAPH 5: There is no documentary evidence at any time for Accohannocks
changing their name (or having it changed by others) to Annamessex. There is no
Maryland or Virginia document dated 1659 that mentions the Annamessexes at all.
The Accohannocks were still living in Virginia and selling off land, according to
the Accomack County records, and they would do so for at least another decade. All
of these documentary matters ought to be straightened out with the present-day Accohannocks
if possible, or else have the University of Maryland cease to publish the history
in its present form. The present form does a real disservice to readers who want
a short but accurate history of Eastern Shore native people. For anyone wishing
to see the academic background from which I am making these rather strongly-worded
comments, I am enclosing a short curriculum vitae. And the comments may be forwarded
Helen C. Rountree, Ph.D.
Professor Emerita of Anthropology
Old Dominion University
An Armijo Family, by Angelo R. Cervantes
José Antonio Esquibel,
10 June 2001
There is yet no positive evidence that Joseph de Armijo, the husband of Catalina
Duran, and the progenitor or the Armijo family of New Mexico, was a son of Antonio
de Armijo and Damiana de Violante. The lineage published in the March 2001 issues
of the NMG and compiled by Angelo Cervantes should not be accepted as fact.
We know from various primary documents that the Armijo family of New Mexico came
from Zacatecas among the colonists recruited by Juan Paez Hurtado (sources here).
To date no marriage record of pre-nuptial investigation record has been located
for Joseph de Armijo and Catalina Durán, thus the parents of this couple remain
unknown. In addition, without the marriage record of this couple it cannot be substantiated
that this Joseph de Armijo is the same person as the Joseph de Armijo (native of
Zacatecas) who married Antonia Hernández in Mexico City (md. September 11, 1667,
Santa Catalina Martir Church, Mexico City). The lineage presented by Angelo Cervantes
is based solely on similar names and requires additional consideration and research
before being accepted as fact. In particular, it is known that the members of the
Armijo family of New Mexico were consistently referred to as mestizos. As such,
we would expect to find Indian ancestry that is not accounted for in the lineage
compiled by Angelo Cervantes.
At the very least, it should be noted that the lineage was a promising lead instead
of a positive link. Doing otherwise creates confusion and serves to damage the credibility
of sound New Mexico genealogical research.
José Antonio Esquibel
Web site editor's note: The article has been temporarily removed from the
NMGS web site, until such time as the substantiation is received to resolve the
New Mexico Genealogical Society
PO Box 27559
Albuquerque, NM 87125-7559 USA
NMGS Web Editor: Patricia Black Esterly
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